The world pharmaceutical market sells many different antibiotics. They are prescribed for the treatment or prevention of various infectious diseases, including respiratory, ophthalmic, skin, genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and gynecological diseases.
Today, antibiotics are widely available to most patients with infections. In pharmacies, you can buy medications of such drug classes, as aminoglycosides, lincosamides, tetracyclines, ß-lactam antibiotics, oxazolidinoes, macrolides and quinolones.
Antibiotics are available in various dosage forms. In pharmacies, you can buy antibiotics in the form of suppositories, solution for injection, vaginal or oral tablets, ointments, and creams.
You can also find on the pharmaceutical market various antibiotics for children. They differ from drugs for the treatment of infections in adults with a lower content of active substance, a convenient dosage form, presence of different sweeteners or flavors.
To choose a proper antibiotic and determine its adequate dose, it is necessary to establish the etiology, pathology and intensity of infection. The action mechanism of antibiotics is aimed at suppressing the reproduction or complete death of pathogenic microorganisms by disturbance of:
- cell wall synthesis
- production of protein at the level of ribosomes
- functions and structures of the cell membrane
- metabolism and release of nucleic acids
The ß-lactam antibiotics possess the highest safety profile. They are often prescribed for the treatment of infectious diseases in pregnant women. In pharmacies, you can buy ß-lactam antibiotics under such popular brands, as Augmentin, Pipracil, Trimox, and Wycillin.
In the treatment of gastrointestinal infections, antibiotics of the tetracyclines group, in particular Tigecycline, are most effective. In the US, this antibiotic is sold under Tygacil brand. It is available in the form of a powder for the preparation of a solution for infusions.
Tigecycline has a high activity in relation to most strains of streptococci and staphylococci – causative agents of the gastrointestinal tract diseases. This antibiotic is also often used for the therapy of skin infections, including:
- pink zoster
- Lyme disease
- erythema multiforme
Macrolides have a high activity against Staphylococcus aureus – the causative agent of a large number of skin, respiratory, bone or wound infections. These antibiotics are sold under such brand names, as Biaxin, Zithromax, Dificid, Eryped or Erygel.
Quinolones are prescribed for the therapy of most urogenital infections that can not be cured with other antibiotics, such as bacterial prostatitis. Today these antibiotics are sold under such popular brands, as Cipro, Levaquin or Avelox.
Aminoglycosides are highly effective against pathogens of nosocomial infections: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis. Antibiotics of this group, Kanamycin and Streptomycin, are often prescribed for the treatment of various types of tuberculosis.
Antibiotics of this class are produced in various dosage forms, yet the treatment of infectious diseases requires the use of a solution for intravenous injection. In the UK and the USA, these antibiotics can be purchased under such names, as Maxitrol, Amikin and Nebcin.
Lincosamides possess a narrow spectrum of antibiotic action. They are prescribed primarily as second-line drugs for etiotropic therapy for infections, caused by Gram-positive microorganisms. The list of antibiotics of this class includes:
- Pirlimycin (Pirsue)
- Clindamycin (Cleocin)
- Lincomycin (Lincocin)
Oxazolidinoes is a relatively new class of antibiotics. They have a narrow spectrum of activity, and are used in microorganisms’ resistance to other antibiotics. Such drugs of this class, like Linezolid (Zyvox), are prescribed for the treatment of infections that were caused by Staphylococcus aureus.
Until 1938, antibiotics were sold without a prescription. However, today all drugs with bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity are prescription drugs. In some online pharmacies, you can still buy antibiotics without a prescription.